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Expulsion from Home


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Testimony of Jerzy Pawlak

[...]  I returned to the base on Puławska Street, very close to the church, since Dolna Street had stopped existing a while earlier. Here there were a few nuns and about 46 of us boys, ages 11 to 26. We were cooped up in a few small basements in a brick house. No one asked me about anything. I think they were rather satisfied that they did not have to feed me. This uncertain time of waiting, and the terrifying silence, and all this in hunger because the base had already run out of food, and most importantly there was a lack of water.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Stępień

[...]  My name is Halina Stępień. I was born on April 19, 1934 in Warsaw. When the uprising started, I was with my parents - my mother Julianna Wanda Bogdańska and my stepfather Henryk Bogdański - at 10 Old Town Square. On August 26, 1944, during a consecutive air raid, our house was destroyed. Many wounded and dead people were brought out from under heaps of rubble. Among the dead was my stepfather, who was buried along with others in one of the bomb craters on the Old Square (Rynek).  [...]

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Testimony of Wiktoria Adamus

[...]  One day I heard a banging on the gate - the Germans were demanding to come in - the housekeeper opened the gate. The Germans assured everyone that the shelter was not covered in spilled gas, and they wanted to pack us all back in there, but no one wanted to go in there, so they drove us out onto the street called Krakowskie Przedmieście, closer to the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation (kościół Wizytek). A crowd already stood there - I do not know how many people, but the crowd probably filled up all of Krakowskie Przedmieście, from the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation to the Church of the Holy Cross (kościoł Świętego Krzyża).  [...]

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Testimony of Janusz Waldemar Wilczyński

[...]  Around September 10, after our house has been bombed, we run away with the whole family and found a refuge at the apartment of my aunt in the city center, at 1 Górskiego Street. There we survived a terrible bombardment and destruction of the building of the Górski Grammar School, where in the cellars an hospital for the wounded insurgents was located. As some of them were knocking and shouting from the ruins, we quickly started to try to save them.  [...]

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Testimony of Jan Ryszard Mleczek

[...]  At one point during the uprising the Germans expelled all the inhabitants of the buildings in Koło district. I don't know what happened to my colleagues as during the epulsion we run through the woods whenever one could to. I found myself at Bolecha street where I joined a group of civilians forced to march to Prince Janusz street.  [...]

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Testimony of Roman Rechnio

[...]  bad news came, Powiśle has fallen, the Germans captured the Powiśle power station, the insurgents retreated to Śródmieście and in the morning of September 4, 1944 we have been expelled from homes and were not allowed to take anything.  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Czajkowski

[...]  I was a liaison-officer of the Scouts' Field Post Service (Harcerska Poczta Polowa) with its headquarters at 41 Wilcza Street from August 2 till September 14, 1944, pseudonym "Niszczyciel". On October 2, 1944 we were leaving Warsaw, following the streets of Krucza, Piusa, Śniadeckich (near the Polytechnical University), Filtrowa towards the Narutowicz Square.  [...]

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Testimony of Maria Kapuścińska

[...]  I was thirteen years old, when the Warsaw Uprising began. When it happened we, that is my parents, grandmother and me, were living at 22 Marszałkowska Street, Apt. 11 (the building was in the neighborhood referred to as the "German Quarter"). On August 2 we were moved by the Germans from our apartment to a poorer apartment set deeper in the building, and afterward to the basements of buildings at 20 and 18 Marszałkowska Street, where in addition to us, many people were staying - people who had been on the street or at tram stops when the uprising began.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Paszkowska

[...]  We stayed in our house until August 13 (Sunday), and then, during the pacification of our street, I took shelter with my parents in a cork insulation factory, which was across the street from our home. During the pacification of Wola, on August 20, as the SS formations forced us to Pruszków, we miraculously escaped being shot on the way to the outskirts of the city. As we went, I saw murdered people on Bema Street, burned infants.  [...]

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Testimony of Wacława Połomska

[...]  On the morning of August 2, the corpses of the unburied Gypsies were still laying in our yard. A heavy rain was falling. Around noon, Germans again appeared in our yard, and they ordered all of the inhabitants to immediately leave the building and gather by the wall of the "Squadron" ("Dywizjon"), on the opposite side of Zagłoby Street.  [...]

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Testimony of Włodzimierz Antosiewicz

[...]  On September 7 fighting troops withdrew to Śródmieście. My father asked me to stay with him, and until 10 o'clock population of Powiśle left the district along the way described by Germans in leaflets. I came out with my father. On Wolska street I was chosen by Germans from a column and taken to Church of Saint Adalbert (kościół świętego Wojciecha).  [...]

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Testimony of Mieczysław Rajmund Gorzelniak

[...]  Next day, Ukrainians rushed into the backyard of 5 Ogrodowa, started to shoot at the windows and shout at people, so as to going out of flats. When all inhabitants were in the backyard, they ousted, shouting, all women and children into the street. Us, men, they disposed at the corner of the backyard and started to take away from us watches, gold and money, and some of the Ukraininas were shooting by signaling pistols at the windows, from where a smoke started to get out in not a long time.  [...]

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Testimony of Wanda Felicja Lurie

[...]  From the year of 1937 I lived together with my family in Warsaw, at 18 Wawelberga Street, apt. 30. (...) On August 5th I was staying in the basement of the building together with my three children aged 11, 6, and three and half years old, me being also in the last month of pregnancy. On that day around 11-12 a.m. German military police assisted by Ukrainians have entered the yard, calling everyone to immediately leave the building. When the inhabitants left the basement, the policemen threw in there fire grenades. Suddenly there was panic and rush everywhere. I kept hesitating on leaving the area as my husband has not been back from the city; I hoped I would be allowed to stay. I was however ordered to leave the building and together with my kids as well as the Gul family I went onto Działdowska Street. The buildings facing the street were already burning.  [...]

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Testimony of Jacek Fedorowicz

[...]  Our belongings have been packed in such a way that everybody was able to carry something on his own; the heaviest rucksack went on my grandfather's back. Before leaving the house we have concealed most valuable family jewels in a hiding-place scooped out in a wall of a part of the basement owned by our family (it was something like a large room, with a window facing the yard); we have never seen them again.  [...]

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Testimony of Małgorzata Stępińska-Winckler

[...]  My parents took me home around September 8. We left Warsaw after the capitulation on October 4. I was already almost healthy, only my skin would peel off all over the body. We were leaving the city, following the streets Lwowska, August 6th and Filtrowa Street, then, crossing the Narutowicz Square, we would follow towards the Warsaw West railway station. We have been led up to one of the platforms.  [...]

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Testimony of Ryszard Zabłotniak

[...]  At the end of August 1944, I along with a large group of civilians, was gathered in the Old Town by the German Army, and we were forced to go to a church in Wola.  [...]

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Testimony of Konrad Zienkiewicz

[...]  In August 1944 I was 13 year old and I lived with my mother and my five year older brother at Ojcowska street, house number (at that time) 89. The Germans captured Sadyba on September 2, attacking concentrically from Siekierki, Ursynów and Wilanów. (...) From the side of Wilanów attacking were Wehrmacht infantry units supported by tanks. Immediately after capturing of successive houses civilians were ordered to leave their apartments and, without being able to take anything from their belongings, forced to go towards Wilanów. Sometimes people were thrown out from their houses when shooting and fighting was still taking place there or around nearby houses. My brother and a neighbour (both young men) stayed in a hiding-place, cleverly arranged according to my mother's design under a pile of coke in the cellar.  [...]

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Testimony of Aleksandra Wróblewska

[...]  After the outbreak of the war, his wife and children lived in Międzylesie for some time, but for the purposes of safety she had to move to Warsaw so that the Germans would not become interested in the abrupt disappearance of her husband, who was interned in the prisoner of war camp in Switzerland. After the outbreak of the German-Soviet war in 1941, my sister-in-law died at age 33. The children remained under the care of grandma - Wanda Szczawińska.  [...]

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Testimony of Zbigniew Zbigniewski

[...]  During the first ten days of the uprising I stayed together with my family in our flat. Then civilians have been evacuated from that region as it became a scene of heavy street fighting. And here our wandering started. Together with the family I stayed in an apartment owned by people known to us at the corner of Pańska and Mariańska Streets, where the situation at that time was relatively quiet. (...)  [...]

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Testimony of Stanisław Korytowski

[...]  The Warsaw Uprising nears its tragic final. A ceasefire is officially announced as binding from October 1, 5 a.m. and on October 2 the fighting stops completely. Everybody has to leave the city. On October 3 at noon military policemen show up in our courtyard at Chopina street, ordering us to leave the building within two hours. The building is to be blown up immediately - that is what the policeman says and in this case we do trust the Germans.  [...]

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Testimony of Idalia Olszewska-Klemińska

[...]  The Germans came and they said that we had to leave. They did not care where we went. Of course, not in the direction of the Russian armies. Instead, we were to go with the Germans, forward. In the direction of Praga. And then there was the Vistula River. So, we were walking with some acquaintances, because we did not have any close people who we could turn to...  [...]

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Testimony of Jadwiga Kołodziejska-Jedynak

[...]  Since my brother headed off for a concentration - that I don't know the details of, but it was definitely some Home Army group - and he was no longer around. I last some him three or four days before the Rising. Yes, the four of us were always together.  [...]

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Testimony of Ludmiła Niedbalska

[...]  In the morning, from the gate, we heard a harsh German voice, which we had not heard in a long time. The voice declared that we were to go disassemble the barricades. The response it received was silence and the calm, hostile glare of women standing motionless. Just in case, the men did not come out. The German looked at us attentively; he noticed the red cat, raised his gun and shot. The cat ran away. The German lowered his gun, turned around and went out onto the street to join his pals.  [...]

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Testimony of Elżbieta Żakowicz-Prejzner

[...]  On August 1st we went outside the house just before 5 pm - and had to come back immediately as we heard sounds of gunfire. There were tanks in the street. And we moved to live in the cellar. Mum kept a well-stocked larder so we could have stayed there for long months without extra supply of food. Unfortunately, on August 3rd we were driven away from the building, from the cellar, by Ukrainians, I guess, soldiers wearing those black uniforms, armed with flame throwers, which they used to shoot at the windows of our house. There was no way we could get back into our flat so we were left with what we had on. The wonderfully stocked cellar was lost for ever, and we went away into misery of hunger and homelessness. Mum was wearing a fur coat, though it was a hot summer day, and she was carrying a bundle of something - a duvet or a pillow. We had no food, all was left in the cellar.  [...]

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Testimony of Eugeniusz Spiechowicz

[...]  On the 30th of September when Żoliborz had been taken over by the Germans, I left the house together with civilians who lived in the basement and my mother who after receiving news on my injuries joined us at Czarniecki Street and took care of me during my illness. On the request of the inhabitants prior to the invasion of the enemy both I and my friend who shared the room with me hid the eagle badges and arm-bands for fear that the Germans would shoot us and all the other people in the basement.  [...]

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Testimony of Maria Jolanta Auleytner

[...] I wanted to return home, but Hania's mother stopped me and said that it's too dangerous. It turned out that during this time the town hall is a bastion of the insurgents, there Germans all around and shooting broke out. So I remained in the Old Town almost  to the end of the fighting, along with the Dawidowicz family. Right before the capitulation of the Old Town I met friends of my [...]

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Testimony of Włodzimierz Szurmak

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Testimony of Leszek Kazanowski

[...]  Burning corpses. And the smell! The smell that was coming out of there, that smell " that was horrible! I was so shaken up that for a long time, until we got out of Warsaw, when I saw buildings on fire...  [...]

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Testimony of Andrzej Garlicki

[...]  We were leaving while the fighting was still going on. I think that fighting was drawing to an end - because all that shooting was drawing to an end - when we more or less reached the seat of the Nuns of the Resurrection, a little further on, that is Krasiński Street close to the allotments. In any case, I think there was also a change in the people who were leading us - from front units to more police-based units. And I remember that - today I know that they were from Kamiński's brigade - members of the Russian National Liberation Army (RONA) were there.  [...]

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Testimony of Elżbieta Dankowska-Walas

[...]  In that church one could hear terrible groans - there were a lot of wounded people on the stretchers. It was so depressing to hear those terrible moans, but people simply were dying there. I remember I wanted to pee and my Mum took me by hand and lead me behind the altar. There were a lot of faeces, it was against people's conscience to relieve themselves in the middle of the church.  [...]

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Testimony of Wiesław Kępiński

[...]  it is puzzling to me that I remember perfectly almost all of those steps, those events, but I do not hear the voice - yet I know that Mother, in that madness, was repeating in despair: "They are going to kill us; they are going to kill us; they are going to kills us." I was even trying to ask the German who was leading us to not kill us... Clearly he probably did not understand me, but that did not matter at all... I even grabbed him by the sleeve...  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Ekner

The house was built of bricks and wood; plaster was placed onto a reed mat, ceilings were insulated with a thin layer of sawdust. When the ruins started to burn, somebody said: „We have to run". We took only the things we were wearing at the moment: winter coats, warm sweaters and trousers. We took our entire belongings - a sack of biscuits, box of lumps of sugar and a small piece, maybe one [...]

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Testimony of Andrzej Janowski

[...]  Later there was a front line on Noakowskiego St. so we had to go out not by the gate but around, through an area of Koszyki Hall and the property of 14 Noakowskiego St. wher there were no buildings at that time - on Noakowskiego St. and Politechniki Square (as it is called today).  [...]

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Testimony of Grażyna Dorota Duchniak

[...]  I not only remembered this, in sticks in my memory to the present. There are such moments when something comes back to me from that period and it literally gives me shivers. Out of fear. We sat in the basement. My mother was among other things an orderly for the entire home - because next to our street, on Karolkowa, there was an insurgent barricade and a pair of injured civilians was brought back to our tenement house.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Wiśniewska

[...]  It was known that would not take us to Germany, only someplace here, near Warsaw. We had to walk the entire way to the Dworzec Zachodni /western station/. Along the way we passed fields, full of tomatoes, various fruits and vegetables that we hadn't seen for two months. So my father got his hands on some of these tomatoes and brought them - but I was afraid to eat them.  [...]

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Testimony of Elżbieta Massalska

[...]  On September 2, 1944 we were ordered by ROA soldiers (so-called Vlassov soldiers) to leave the house at 15/17 Kapucyńska Street, where we lived and survived the Uprising by hiding in the cellars. I was 14 years old. We took light luggage and our beloved dog, a Scottish terrier. Because we heard rumours that Vlassov soldiers killed dogs, I carried our Bombka in my hands. Vlassov soldiers were not interested in the dog, but in my ring and watch, which they took of course. We were led down Daniłowiczowska Street (there was a passage from Kapucyńska Street to Daniłowiczowska Street through the gate of one of the houses), along the gutted ruins of Blank palace to Teatralny Square. There, we joined a large crowd of people crouching by their bundles. With a heavy heart we looked at the gutted and ruined Church of the Nuns of the Holy Sacrament, the Town Hall and the Grand Theatre. A cloud of smoke hung over the city.  [...]

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Testimony of Anna Teofilak-Maliszewska

[...]  We continued living in the Institute for a few days; it seemed strangely empty then. Around August 21st, a decent coach pulled up in front of the Institute; it safely took the workers and us, from the doorman's space, to West Warsaw Station (Warszawa Zachodnia) and we were ordered to go to Pruszków. This was the unexpected result of the care given by the director of the Institute, a German, who promised his workers that he would not allow anyone to hurt them.  [...]

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Testimony of Ewa Kirszenstein-Skrzypczak

[...]  In Smolna Street, together with my mum's friend, Mania, we didn't do any packing - we didn't actually have many things and it just didn't occur to us to do that. I remember I was wearing a coat, the type that was later called "prochowiec" (a trench coat), a kind of light coat - it was rather warm then. They drove us in front of the Red Cross Hospital gardens and then took us to Czerwonego Krzyża Street, where they made us hide in a gateway. There was a Ukrainian soldier hanging around - we used to call them "Kalmuck" though they were Ukrainians - who would delight in threatening to shoot us down, and then he would say: "Now I'm going away to have a drink, but I will come back and shoot you down." Actually, he didn't come back and didn't shoot us down.  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Uldanowicz

[...]  During the first 2-3 days after the capitulation, the people who were staying in the area around Grzybowska Street were informed (I do not remember by what means) that after their obligatory abandonment of Warsaw, they would be directed to rural areas in the General Government (Generalne Gubernatorstwo). This information, which most of us believed, not only decreased our level of vigilance and in principle eliminated efforts at escaping from arrival at Pruszków, but it also influenced - to a significant extent - our mode of preparing ourselves for the travel; in particular, it resulted in - rather than taking appropriate clothes for hard, physical work in open terrain, which later turned out to be exceptionally necessary - taking various instruments which would according to our judgment be useful in the countryside for exchanging for food, paying for lodging, etc., since money was gradually losing its worth.  [...]

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Testimony of Danuta Nizińska-Grzegrzółka

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Testimony of Jerzy Kasprzak

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Testimony of Dariusz Karolak

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Testimony of Tadeusz Ziomek

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Testimony of Barbara Rybeczko-Tarnowiecka

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Testimony of Izabella Wciślińska

[...]  The Germans came in through a hole in the wall the size of an entrance door and ordered us to get out, shouting "raus". Before leaving the basement, in an agreement with my husband, I placed my ring with a huge diamond in the bedding, and gave my daughter to my husband in a sleeping bag, since I thought they might apply repressions towards men. They rounded us up in front of Queen Marysieńka palace, then we saw the barrel of the tank pointed towards us, and two Germans with rifles lying on both sides of the tank.  [...]

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Testimony of Marian Grzegorz Bergander

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Testimony of Witold Jerzy Niewiadomski

[...]  On the fifth or sixth of October, we met near the Polytechnic, then headed down Filtrowa Street, through Narutowicza Sq, to Dworzec Zachodni /rail station Warsaw West/.  [...]

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Testimony of Bohdan Lewandowski

When the capitulation occurred 63 days later, we thought that the worst was already over. Our apartment building and our apartment had so far escaped the effects of war. It turned out that there were food supplies still hidden somewhere. We got a bit of flour, oil and honey. I will never forget the taste of those fresh pancakes with honey.
In the meantime, we were ordered to evacuate and we had [...]

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Testimony of Tadeusz Klemiński

[...]  When did the Germans drive you away and how was it? The Germans drove us away at the turn of July and August. On July 27th the Russian tanks came close to Wawer. After that when these tanks arrived and later came back to Miłosna, the Germans displaced us... At first we went to my godfather. He lived with his wife in Grochów district.  [...]

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Testimony of Krystyna Zbyszewska

[...]  I was terrified with what would happen to Warsaw. I knew that the Germans hated us and wanted to destroy Warsaw. I also didn't know what was happening to my Mum. I didn't know where to go, should I go to my family who lived in Włoszczowa and in Olkusz. I went to "Gozdal" (Przemysław Górecki) on Wilcza 41 St. and asked him, what to do. "Gozdal" was the scoutmaster, who looked after us. Some people told me I should go as a civilian, the others that I should go with my squad. "Gozdal" asked me where did I live before, I told him that this was in Ochota district on Narutowicza Square and that I have left my Mum there. He told me that I should not go as a civilian and instead I should remain with the squad.  [...]

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Testimony of Danuta Napiórkowska-Jarzębowska

[...]  The cellar was completely crowded but we were all together. A few minutes after that evacuation the building started to shake. Silence fell in the cellar - it was 12.00 - the height of the noon. And suddenly we heard a terrible "whistle", a horrible roar and dust. It was an air-raid. The bomb hit that part of the building which we had just left. It broke through all the ceilings and completely ruined our former shelter. The caretaker, who stayed there, perished. After a moment the next terrible whistle - the horrible roar again and ... silence. The second bomb hit the boiler - room adjacent to our cellar, fell into the coal-dust and didn't exploded. We escaped death only by a miracle, I daresay.  [...]

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Testimony of Eulalia Matusiak-Rudak

[...]  We slept one more night in the basement, because it was prohibited to enter the apartments. Once I made it through the Germans, to get some clothing or something to eat. I left kind of unknowing to my father and aunt. I left this basement, because it was dark there, who could notice me? I left, creeping along. The Germans were sitting on the ground floor. I walked past them and they didn't say a thing to me. True, they were sleeping, but they didn't say anything to me. I went to the first floor and Germans were sitting in our hallway. I walked past them and entered the apartment. I opened the door with a key, because my aunt and I managed to lock up as we were leaving. I opened the door, entered and took something to eat. There was some bread, a piece of pork fat and some pot, probably soup, I don't remember this. Walking back this German took the bread from me and asked (I don't know German) what I have, and a second one says: "speck", or pork fat and he gives back the bread and takes the pork fat. They also took the apartment key from me, and didn't let me take it back, but I took this pot and the bread to the basement.  [...]

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Testimony of Krzysztof Radlicz

[...]  On the 27th of September Mokotów capitulated. What was happening to you from that moment on? There was severe shooting and we were in open space. The "Społem" house was already in German hands. Through this passage we moved to the corner house in 34 Bałuckiego street and there we survived the capitulation of Mokotów. Before we left, a second lieutenant was passing through the gate of the building in 15 Różana street, such a charming young man full of humour. The Germans moved a cannon on caterpillars and shot at this gate.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Rozwadowska, mother of mark age 8

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Testimony of Leokadia Ciekanowska

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Testimony of Andrzej Gracjan Flaszczyński

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Testimony of Henryk Piotrowski

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Testimony of Henryk Ban

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Testimony of Aniela Libionka

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Testimony of Leszek Mieczysław Muszel

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Testimony of Mirosława Grabowskiej (Gelber-Olszowa)

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Testimony of Zbigniew Badowski

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Testimony of Wanda Łabuzińska

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Testimony of Jadwiga Kowejsza

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Testimony of Bohdan Kapica

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Testimony of Cecylia Krajewska

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Testimony of Angelika Józefowicz

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Testimony of Teresa Różycka

[...]  Kamiński soldiers (Ukrainians or Russians in the Wehrmacht service, called Vlasoviec) struck on the 10th of August. My mother opened the door, the others were afraid. They forced all of us out to the adjacent streets. One of the soldiers took a liking to my fifteen year old sister and started to caress her and talk tenderly.  [...]

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Testimony of Stefan Wojciech Niesłuchowski

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Testimony of Andrzej Korgol

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Tetimony of Halina Olk-Wieczorek

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Testimony of Ewa Osiecka

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Testimony of Alicja Rzaczykiewicz

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Testimony of Sylwester Rzaczykiewicz

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Testimony of Bohdan Lewartowski

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Testimony of Elżbieta Uszyńska

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Testimony of Danuta Wierzbowska-Pawlik

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Testimony of Antonina Irmina Osińska-Głąb

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Testimony of Bohdan Stanislaw Dąbrowski

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Testimony of Jolanta Małgorzata Dąbrowska-Markiewicz

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Testimony of Hanna Maria Żarska-Szczepańska

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Testimony of Janusz Kosk

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Testimony of Jadwiga Szczęścik-Perucka

You were a five year old girl when the Warsaw Uprising broke out. Where did you live at the time?At my grandma's house at 13 Olesińska Street. My sister, 12-years old Barbara, was also there. On the day the Uprising began my mom and our oldest sister, 16-years old Stanisława, went to Królikarnia in order to buy some bread rolls. 
I was left with grandma, grandpa and Basia. On August 4th [...]

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Testimony of Zbigniew Rajmund Gnass

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Testimony of Halina Kowalska, mother of baby Paweł

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Testimony of Zbigniew Zmarzlik

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Testimony of Władysław Sala

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Testimony of Krystyna Krasuska (Górecka)

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Testimony of Marta Gadomska-Juskowiak

So you were afraid of this bombing? How did you feel this?             The howl of the stukases was so piercing that I can still feel the shivers on my back. When the bombing ended, the Germans rushed into the yard, with grenades, shouting "Raus! Raus!" and it seems that they drove out everyone from the basement. Most likely residents of the houses on 1, 3 and 4 Ogrodowa Street [...]

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Testimony of Zygmunt Walter

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Testimony of Danuta Podrucka (Pastuszyńska-Szpądrowska)

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Testimony of Leszek Łacheta

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Testimony of Blandyna Surmiak (Lewińska)

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Testimony of Bolesław Oleksiak

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Testimony of Jadwiga Sawczuk

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Testimony of Jadwiga Kazimierska (Litwin)

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Testimony of Wiesław Zorgier

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Testimony of Stefan Marczak

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Testimony of Jadwiga Szmidt

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Testimony of Teresa Wiza

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Testimony of Paweł Ambrożewicz

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Testimony of Danuta Kusińska (Śpiewak)

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Testimony of Michalina Walter-Horst

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Testimony of Janina Loth-Borkowska

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Testimony of Wojciech Prośniewski

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Testimony of Julia Tazbir-Ehrenfeucht

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