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Written account in full


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Testimony of Wiktoria Adamus

[...]  I was seven years old during the Warsaw Uprising. One day I heard a banging on the gate - the Germans were demanding to come in - the housekeeper opened the gate. The Germans assured everyone that the shelter was not covered in spilled gas, and they wanted to pack us all back in there, but no one wanted to go in there, so they drove us out onto the street called Krakowskie Przedmieście, closer to the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation (kościół Wizytek). A crowd already stood there - I do not know how many people, but the crowd probably filled up all of Krakowskie Przedmieście, from the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation to the Church of the Holy Cross (kościoł Świętego Krzyża). I still remember tanks from the end where the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation stands and from the opposite end. The tank on the side of the Church of the Nuns of the Visitation was set on fire by participants of the uprising. This created great confusion.  [...]

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Testimony of Paweł Ambrożewicz

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Testimony of Włodzimierz Antosiewicz

[...]  On Wolska street I was chosen by Germans from a column and taken to Church of Saint Adalbert. When the evening was approaching, I was taken by SS-man to a 1-level barrack at the fence of the church. I was interrogated there - what is my name, where do I live, with whom do I live, what had I done during the uprising, what had my father done. My answers must have been "convincing" for them, because I was led back to the church.  [...]

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Testimony of Maria Jolanta Auleytner

Maria Jolanta Auleytner, from the Lepszy family
DOB 6.06.1931, Birthplace: Lwów         [...] I wanted to return home, but Hania's mother stopped me and said that it's too dangerous. It turned out that during this time the town hall is a bastion of the insurgents, there Germans all around and shooting broke out. So I remained in the Old Town almost  to the end of the fighting, [...]

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Testimony of Zbigniew Badowski

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Testimony of Helena Balcer

Without a date, between August 8th and 13th
         We left Warsaw on Monday, that is on August 7, 1944. Our tragedy began at that moment. We walked through a sea of flames and a mass of corpses, killed and burned. After exiting the basements, we were separated from the men. The last time I saw Lolek, my husband, was on August 7th at 10am. I do not know where he ended up with that bad [...]

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Testimony of Henryk Ban

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Testimony of Marian Grzegorz Bergander

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Testimony of Leonard Bura on Franciszek Kudławiec

[...]  After the fall of the Warsaw Uprising, his monk's frock was used once again: he was provided with a letter (both in Polish and German) written by the Main Civilians' Protection Office (RGO) and entrusted with the mission of taking out of Warsaw a large group of about a hundred children, including many orphans or lost children, as well as two Jewish children survivors. Brother Kudławiec managed to take them all out of Warsaw by turns, then transported to Częstochowa, where he found for them a permanent cure and lodgings. (The children were exclusively boys.) At the same time he started to look for the relatives of the children and till May 1945 he found members of families of above 70 of the children.  [...]

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Testimony of Leokadia Ciekanowska

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Testimony of Jerzy Czajkowski

[...]  On October 2, 1944 we were leaving Warsaw, following the streets of Krucza, Piusa, Śniadeckich (near the Polytechnical University), Filtrowa towards the Narutowicz Square. Here we had the first repose. We had very little luggage as almost everything was destroyed in the ruins.  [...]

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Testimony of Aniela Czarnecka

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Testimony of Elżbieta Dankowska-Walas

[...]  I remember the moment we were being expelled us after the Old Town collapsed - something was happening, there was some commotion - the Germans started to drive us out of this shelter. There were no men, just women and children. I remember I was in sandals and socks and when they started to drive us I lost one sandal and went on in one sandal only and just in the socks. And my Mum went out from there in a fur-coat. I wondered why she had put in on, after all it was August, warm days, summer; surely she wanted to save it. It was black fur of Persian lamb paws; she had it a long time later after the Uprising. And she put on the stiletto-shoes of snake skin and in those shoes and that fur she went out...  [...]

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Testimony of Bohdan Stanisław Dąbrowski

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Testimony of Jolanta Małgorzata Dąbrowska (Markiewicz)

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Testimony of Wiktoria Dewitz

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Testimony of Julia Marcela Dyakowska

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Testimony of Jacek Fedorowicz

[...]  A huge square, a crowd of expelled Warsavians and the selection process that would determine the future of all these people. The Germans were looking for relatively healthy people in order to transport them to working places in Germany. The following categories were exempted: old persons (like my grandparents), pregnant women (Marysia was expecting a baby), little children and their mothers (so I was a shield here for my Mom).  [...]

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Testimony of Zbigniew Rajmund Gnass

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Testimony of Andrzej Gracjan Flaszczyński

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Testimony of Mieczysław Rajmund Gorzelniak

[...]  A few days before Uprising my family was staying at 5 Ogrodowa. After capturing a building of Court (a German hospital was located there) I joined a grouping of colonel "Forester". Major "Ryś" ("Lynx"), with red moustache, copied my data to a scratchpad and assigned me to engineer "Leon". I was helping him to put a radiostation in service, among other things we were installing proper antennas.  [...]

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Testimony of Mirosława Grabowska (Gelber-Olszowa)

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Testimony of Irena Grabowska-Szabunia

[...]  I do not know how to describe the route - I was deathly exhausted, ill (bladder infection, agonizing cough, pneumonia), as well as depressed (I did not know what had happened to my mother, who was separated from me during the transport. I also did not know what had happened to my sister, who was in the "Zośka" battalion").  [...]

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Testimony of Wanda Jarczyk

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Testimony of Angelika Józefowicz

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Testimony of Wanda Kamieniecka-Grycko

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Testimony of Bohdan Kapica

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Testimony of Maria Kapuścińska

[...]  On August 2 we were moved by the Germans from our apartment to a poorer apartment set deeper in the building, and afterward to the basements of buildings at 20 and 18 Marszałkowska Street, where in addition to us, many people were staying - people who had been on the street or at tram stops when the uprising began. There were also a few people from odd-numbered buildings on Marszałkowska Street (on the corner with Oleandrów Street), which were set on fire with the inhabitants still inside, after the participants of the uprising were removed. Only a few of the inhabitants miraculously managed to reach our side of the street, almost insane from horror.  [...]

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Testimony of Dariusz Karolak

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Testimony of Jerzy Kasprzak

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Testimony of Jadwiga Kazimierska (Litwin)

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Testimony of Andrzej Korgol

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Testimony of Stanisław Korytowski

[...]  The Warsaw Uprising nears its tragic final. A ceasefire is officially announced as binding from October 1, 5 a.m. and on October 2 the fighting stops completely. Everybody has to leave the city. On October 3 at noon military policemen show up in our courtyard at Chopina street, ordering us to leave the building within two hours. The building is to be blown up immediately - that is what the policeman says and in this case we do trust the Germans. I am leaving the city together with the civilians. With my mother and sister, among the crowd of exiles we cross the ruins and remnants of barricades at Koszykowa and Śniadeckich streets. In the square in front of the Polytechnical University (Politechnika Warszawska) we are being given bread by the RGO (Rada Główna Opiekuńcza or Central Welfare Council, a Polish organization existing legally during the occupation, distributing food and basic help to displaced persons).  [...]

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Testimony of Janusz Kosk

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Testimony of Halina kowalska, mother of one month baby

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Testimony of Jadwiga Kowejsza

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Testimony of Cecylia Krajewska

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Testimony of Krystyna Krasuska (Górecka)

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Testimony of Danuta Kusińska (Śpiewak)

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Testimony of Bohdan Lewandowski

Bogdan Lewandowski was 8 years-old during the Warsaw Rising. When the capitulation occurred 63 days later, we thought that the worst was already over. Our apartment building and our apartment had so far escaped the effects of war. It turned out that there were food supplies still hidden somewhere. We got a bit of flour, oil and honey. I will never forget the taste of those fresh pancakes with honey. [...]

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Testimony of Bohdan Lewartowski

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Testimony of Aniela Libionka

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Testimony of Wanda Felicja Lurie

[...]  From the year of 1937 I lived together with my family in Warsaw, at 18 Wawelberga Street, apt. 30. (...) On August 5th I was staying in the basement of the building together with my three children aged 11, 6, and three and half years old, me being also in the last month of pregnancy. On that day around 11-12 a.m. German military police assisted by Ukrainians have entered the yard, calling everyone to immediately leave the building. When the inhabitants left the basement, the policemen threw in there fire grenades. Suddenly there was panic and rush everywhere. I kept hesitating on leaving the area as my husband has not been back from the city; I hoped I would be allowed to stay. I was however ordered to leave the building and together with my kids as well as the Gul family I went onto Działdowska Street. The buildings facing the street were already burning.  [...]

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Testimony of Wanda Łabuzińska

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Testimony of Leszek Łacheta

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Testimony of Stefan Marczak

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Testimony of Elżbieta Massalska

[...]  On September 2, 1944 we were ordered by ROA soldiers (so-called Vlassov soldiers) to leave the house at 15/17 Kapucyńska Street, where we lived and survived the Uprising by hiding in the cellars. I was 14 years old. We took light luggage and our beloved dog, a Scottish terrier. Because we heard rumours that Vlassov soldiers killed dogs, I carried our Bombka in my hands. Vlassov soldiers were not interested in the dog, but in my ring and watch, which they took of course. We were led down Daniłowiczowska Street (there was a passage from Kapucyńska Street to Daniłowiczowska Street through the gate of one of the houses), along the gutted ruins of Blank palace to Teatralny Square.  [...]

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Testimony of Stanisław Milewski

[...]  Once again I was arrested by the Nazi patrol in Grodzisk and on the 29th of September 1944 I was deported from Pruszków to the camp in Schneidemühl (Piła). I crossed the town as the last of our group. German mothers with babies in arms came running in the street and cursed us. One of the mothers with two babies in her arms screamed at me: "so young and bandit already...." and spat me in the face. I was deeply shocked and pondered over the power of hatred - I think not possible anywhere else...  [...]

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Testimony of Jan Ryszard Mleczek

[...]  At one point during the uprising the Germans expelled all the inhabitants of the buildings in Koło district. I don't know what happened to my colleagues as during the epulsion we run through the woods whenever one could to. I found myself at Bolecha street where I joined a group of civilians forced to march to Prince Janusz street. There, next to a street-car depot, the refugees have been divided in two groups. I, with my childish look, have been ordered to join women, children and elderly people, which were then forced to march towards the villages of Górce and Boernerowo.  [...]

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Testimony of Leszek Mieczysław Muszel

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Testimony of Danuta Napiórkowska-Jarzębowska

[...]  Before and after of the outbreak of the World War II I live with my parents and younger brother in Grochów district. On September 1, at the school year at the school on the corner of Grochowska and Siennicka Streets, where I was to attend to the second grade, hade been interrupted by a sudden, very strong German an air-raid. The first bombing already had a tragic consequences for Warsaw. That event had an essential importance for my further experiences and war memories during and after the Warsaw Uprising. After the encroachment on Warsaw the Germans occupied, for their own purposes, the school building. So our school "organized" in a small building in the former boarding-school on Krypska St. in Grochów district. In that school, during the German occupation, I finished six grades. Then my parents suddenly decided to move to the west side of Warsaw - to father's friends at 4 Orla St. There was a very spacious luxury apartment on the ground floor, but, as it later turned out, on the first floor above that apartment floor lived the other friend of my father. It didn't take long for me to realize that the point of was for those three families to be together because the men were in a conspiracy movement and they fought together in the Uprising. On August 7 - I remember that day as it were yesterday. On that day I saw my father for the last time and in that day was hell on the Earth.  [...]

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Testimony of Ludmiła Niedbalska

[...]  During the night you could hear some sounds, voices; during the day detonations, explosions. Mom would not let me go outside, so I would continue to rummage through my aunt's treasures or I would sit on the window sill and look out onto the street. Some people were hanging around in the ruins - ghosts, they were dragging some of their things, or other people's things, anything that could be useful. From the perspective of Wilcza Street - to the left - one could see Marszałkowska Street, and there a bit more movement, sometimes cars. Until one night, upon hearing a louder sound, I got out of bed barefoot and looked out the window: a building was burning on Marszałkowska Street. Completely new. A building which, yesterday, was still standing, whole. And even though it seemed absurd to me, in the direction of its windows, from the right side, from below, from an unseen source, streams of fire were flowing. In the morning, from the gate, we heard a harsh German voice, which we had not heard in a long time. The voice declared that we were to go disassemble the barricades. The response it received was silence and the calm, hostile glare of women standing motionless. Just in case, the men did not come out. The German looked at us attentively; he noticed the red cat, raised his gun and shot. The cat ran away. The German lowered his gun, turned around and went out onto the street to join his pals.  [...]

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Testimony of Stefan Wojciech Niesłuchowski

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Testimony of Witold Jerzy Niewiadomski

[...]  After the capitulation, we were recommended to leave with the civilian population.. Our superiors thought that this way it would be easier to get out, avoid repression. After all, it wasn't known how the Germans would react. The last task remained undone: hide documents, bury the archives. To the end we performed services to help out the civilian population. A mate that I went to Żoliborz with, was in the group that evacuated hospitals. He left Warsaw some two, three weeks later with groups from the Red Cross. I left together with my scout leader, Tadeusz Jarosz "Topacz", Józef Przewłocki "Placek", his mother and two sisters. On the fifth or sixth of October, we met near the Polytechnic, then headed down Filtrowa Street, through Narutowicza Sq, to Dworzec Zachodni /rail station Warsaw West/. We walked through garden plots in front of the rail station. That abundant summer, the plots were full of lush tomatoes, carrots and all kinds of greens. The "fun" didn't start until the interim camp in Ursus. We were driven to a concrete hall, no water, or any sanitary facilities. We couldn't stop from laughing when these vegetables gave us diarrhoea.  [...]

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Testimony of Danuta Nizińska-Grzegrzółka

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Testimony of Bolesław Oleksiak

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Testimony of Halina Olk-Wieczorek

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Testimony of Ewa Osiecka

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Testimony of Antonina Irmina Osińska (Głąb)

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Testimony of Halina Paszkowska

[...]  During the pacification of Wola, on August 20, as the SS formations forced us to Pruszków, we miraculously escaped being shot on the way to the outskirts of the city. As we went, I saw murdered people on Bema Street, burned infants. I saw a burning horse (restrained with a wire and surrounded by wood). On Bema Street, SS officers were standing next to tables that were covered by white paper, displaying trays of cake, which they offered to us, while we were forced to move by the butts of guns. It turned out that they were trying to make a film; unfortunately, it did not work out according to their plan because as we walked by the table, everyone turned their head in the opposite direction. Nearby however, they were shooting people (but obviously, they did not film this).  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Pawlak

[...]  At the end of September 1944, the scout leader and troops took us to some firing trenches. I remember they were on a slope. Leaning out of the trench, I saw a wide panorama below. Certainly, it was Dolny Czerniaków with sparse, loosely-placed buildings. Some of them were burning. In some places plumes of fire erupted, and the sounds of detonation could be heard from afar.  [...]

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Testimony of Henryk Piotrowski

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Testimony of Danuta Podrucka (Pastuszyńska-Szpądrowska)

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Testimony of Wacława Połomska

[...]  On the morning of August 2, the corpses of the unburied Gypsies were still laying in our yard. A heavy rain was falling. Around noon, Germans again appeared in our yard, and they ordered all of the inhabitants to immediately leave the building and gather by the wall of the "Squadron" ("Dywizjon"), on the opposite side of Zagłoby Street. The inhabitants of the building left in the clothes they had on.  [...]

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Testimony of Roman Rechnio

[...]  bad news came, Powiśle has fallen, the Germans captured the Powiśle power station, the insurgents retreated to Śródmieście and in the morning of September 4, 1944 we have been expelled from homes and were not allowed to take anything. We, the Powiśle residents, were forced to Pruszków to the transit camp.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Rozwadowska, mother of Marek (age 8)

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Testimony of Teresa Różycka

[...]  Kamiński soldiers (Ukrainians or Russians in the Wehrmacht service, called Vlasoviec) struck on the 10th of August. My mother opened the door, the others were afraid. They forced all of us out to the adjacent streets. One of the soldiers took a liking to my fifteen year old sister and started to caress her and talk tenderly. My mother gave her a rosary in tears. "Let the Mother of God rescue my daughter!" I reacted violently: "Mum, he's a good person, he won't do anything bad to her"! My eyes met his. He repeated: "A good person!" Continually looking at me, he let Marycha go and walked off. Yes, Mary used me to rescue my sister. We were led to the famous Zieleniak on Grójecka Street.  [...]

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Testimony of Barbara Rybeczko-Tarnowiecka

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Testimony of Mieczysław Rychter

[...]  I am allowing myself to send a handful of information about children from Warsaw who were displaced during the uprising. The information is not complete because it pertains to children who attended the President Gabriel Narutowicz Primary School Number 1, after January 16, 1945 (liberation of Grójec). A small number of the children, along with their parents, returned to the ruins of the capital (4-6); however, the rest stayed until the moment when tolerable living conditions arose in the capital which was being rebuilt.  [...]

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Testimony of Alicja Rzaczykiewicz

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Testimony of Sylwester Rzaczykiewicz

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Testimony of Władysław Sala

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Testimony of Jadwiga Sawczuk

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Testimony of Eugeniusz Spiechowicz

[...]  I was born on the 10th of June 1929. I was aged 15 on the day the Warsaw Uprising broke out. I was a scout, member of the 48th Warsaw Water Team (the Grey Ranks). The first day of August found us waiting for the assignment of tasks and assembly but the order did not reach us. The next day together with my late friend Zygmunt Perzyk "Albatros" we escaped from our mothers and left home to join the fighting troops.  [...]

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Testimony of Halina Stępień

[...]  On August 26, 1944, during a consecutive air raid, our house was destroyed. Many wounded and dead people were brought out from under heaps of rubble. Among the dead was my stepfather, who was buried along with others in one of the bomb craters on the Old Square (Rynek). I led my mother, who was badly wounded in the head, through the basements to the uprising hospital on Długa Street (today the building of the Central Archives of Historical Records (Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych, AGAD)), where she was taken care of, and me too, because I was wounded in the leg.  [...]

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Testimony of Małgorzata Stępińska-Winckler

[...]  Somewhen around August 10 I volunteered to serve as a hawker distributing the insurgents' newsletters; the distributing center was located at 24 (or 26) Krucza street. The newsletter I was about to distribute was "Biuletyn Informacyjny".  [...]

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Testimony of Blandyna Surmiak (Lewińska)

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Testimony of Włodzimierz Szurmak

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Testimony of Jadwiga Szmidt

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Testimony of Anna Teofilak-Maliszewska

[...]  Around August 8th, German soldiers arrived at our home, ordering us to leave the building. Inhabitants were to leave immediately because the building was going to be burned down. Once already out on the street, I experienced horrible moments of fear, when my mother ran back inside the apartment in order to get some clothes. I was scared that she might not make it back in time.Then we parted from our cousins who decided to leave Warsaw via Dolny Mokotów (part of Warsaw) which they luckily succeeded.  [...]

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Testimony of Maria Tryczyńska

[...]  After the fall of the Uprising, which ended on September 30, 1944 I got "tangled" among the civilians (I was by then nearly 15 years old and I was a tiny girl) through the Pruszków camp, then in Jędrzejów from where I got out to the local villages and temporary lived in Kozłów at home of chief officer of the villagers at the time - Mr Stawik, whose son Adam and cousin Kazik Palka were Home Army (Armia Krajowa - AK) soldiers. There I stayed until the end of war, which allowed us - me and my father and my mother and my sister to get through to the father's family to Chrzanów near Cracow, where we lived for about a year.  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Uldanowicz

[...]  At the capitulation of the uprising, I was in the building at 7 Grzybowska Street, where I had lived since before the uprising, a building in an area free from German control. At the time I was 14 years old. During the first 2-3 days after the capitulation, the people who were staying in the area around Grzybowska Street were informed (I do not remember by what means) that after their obligatory abandonment of Warsaw, they would be directed to rural areas in the General Government (Generalne Gubernatorstwo). This information, which most of us believed, not only decreased our level of vigilance and in principle eliminated efforts at escaping from arrival at Pruszków, but it also influenced - to a significant extent - our mode of preparing ourselves for the travel; in particular, it resulted in - rather than taking appropriate clothes for hard, physical work in open terrain, which later turned out to be exceptionally necessary - taking various instruments which would according to our judgment be useful in the countryside for exchanging for food, paying for lodging, etc., since money was gradually losing its worth.  [...]

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Testimony of Elżbieta Uszyńska

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Testimony of Izabella Wciślińska

[...]  The weather during the Rising was beautiful. So when it was quiet and peaceful, people gathered in the yard on Maria Kazimiera Street. Our home had a high wall on the stairwell side. The food was terrible, star shaped pasta with marmalade, and a bit of cooked vegetables which people brought from surrounding fields. When it was peaceful, one could cook, since there was a small coal-fired stove and water. I only breast fed my daughter.  [...]

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Testimony of Danuta Wierzbowska-Pawlik

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Testimony of Janusz Waldemar Wilczyński

[...]  Around September 10, after our house has been bombed, we run away with the whole family and found a refuge at the apartment of my aunt in the city center, at 1 Górskiego Street. There we survived a terrible bombardment and destruction of the building of the Górski Grammar School, where in the cellars an hospital for the wounded insurgents was located. As some of them were knocking and shouting from the ruins, we quickly started to try to save them. The Germans tried to obstruct our actions by shooting at us from airplane machine guns, but no one really cared for that and we continued to dig and search through the ruins for the survivors. After a while however the airplanes bombed us with fire-bombs. The fire was enormous. On October 6, after the capitulation, we left Warsaw and walked in a Germans-watched column to Pruszków.  [...]

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Testimony of Teresa Wiza

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Testimony of Aleksandra Wróblewska

[...]  My brother, Bohdan Henryk Wróblewski, born on May 22, 1902 in Ukraine, married in 1933 to Jadwiga of the Szczawiński family, was a worker in the "K. Szpotański and Company Factory of Electric Appliances" in Warsaw ("Fabryka Aparatów Elektrycznych K. Szpotański i spółka" w Warszawie). Before the war he became the supervisor of a factory that belonged to this company, in Międzylesie, where he moved in the summer of 1938, along with his wife and two children - his son Bohdan Andrzej, born on February 22, 1936, and his daughter Anna Krystyna, born on March 27, 1938.  [...]

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Testimony of Ryszard Zabłotniak

[...]  At the end of August 1944, I along with a large group of civilians, was gathered in the Old Town by the German Army, and we were forced to go to a church in Wola. At the time I was fifteen years old; before the uprising I was a student in the second grade at a middle school, which was obviously working with the underground.  [...]

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Testimony of Zbigniew Zbigniewski

[...]  I have lived in Warsaw since my birth. In 1944 I was 15 years old and I lived together with my family - i.e. my father, step-mother, seven year old sister and one year old step sister at 32 Grzybowska Street. (...) The Warsaw Uprising caught me at work in a bakery on the corner of Ciepła and Grzybowska Streets. During the first ten days of the uprising I stayed together with my family in our flat.  [...]

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Testimony of Krystyna Zbyszewska

[...]  Together with my squad we walked through a half of Warsaw to the Zbawiciela Square. I haven't had any weapons with me but all my colleagues had to throw their weapons - revolvers, shotguns - into the basket. I thought that my heart would bleed to death. We walked along Grójecka St. to my flat that was on the third floor. Everything was burnt down. My Mum was gone, taken the Germans somewhere away. I walked with the squad all the way to Ożarów. There were some tomato fields on the way. When we saw these tomatoes- there ten or fifteen on each bush - we have rushed towards them. I went there and I couldn't stop from was stuffing myself.  [...]

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Testimony of Jerzy Zenon Zenowicz

[...]  I left the Warsaw Uprising together with my parents on October 1 1944. We have been ordered to walk towards the Warsaw West railway station, from where we have been transported in a cargo train to Ursus, then again forced to walk till Pruszków. From Pruszków we have been taken by train to Breslau-Bürgwaide, and finally to Breslau-Nikolaito (Wrocław-Mikołajów), to the "Lichman Hofman Werke A.G." railway works.  [...]

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Testimony of Konrad Zienkiewicz

[...]  The fate of my family, as well as many other families from Sadyba, was perhaps a bit unusual, as we have not gone through any camp and even continued to live in Sadyba for a month after the end of the uprising (...) In August 1944 I was 13 year old and I lived with my mother and my five year older brother at Ojcowska street, house number (at that time) 89. The Germans captured Sadyba on September 2, attacking concentrically from Siekierki, Ursynów and Wilanów.  [...]

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Testimony of Tadeusz Ziomek

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Testimony of Zbigniew Zmarzlik

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Testimony of Wiesław Zorgier

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Testimony of Hanna Maria Żarska (Szczepańska)

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Testimony of Wojciech Prośniewski

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  The project is implemented by the Museum of Warsaw in cooperation with the State Archives of City of Warsaw, and the Niedersachsische Gedenkstatten Foundation